Richard Lazarus’s (1993) transactional model emphasizes that there is a transaction between the stressor and a person’s appraisal as to whether she or he possesses adequate resources to cope with the stressor. Explain Lazarus’s three levels of cognitive appraisal (primary, secondary, and cognitive reappraisal); describe a stressful event that has recently occurred in your life. If you cannot think of any such event, you can create a fictional one or use one that has recently occurred in a friend’s or relative’s life.
Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: A history of changing outlooks. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 1–21.
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