Gender Inequality in Professional Soccer


1.3 Topic format Focus on a question in the following format: Do men … more than women, and if so, why? or Are men … more than women, and if so, why? 1.4 Topic examples ˆ Are women more risk averse than men when it comes to investing, and if so, why? ˆ Do women have different roles than men in religion, and if so, why? 2 ˆ Are men more likely to be top chess players than women, and if so, why? (Note: these examples cannot be chosen as topics.) 2 Motivation This is NOT AN ESSAY, it is a research paper. You should start with a topic/question for which the answer is not obvious. If you already know the answer, it is not an interesting topic. The paper should not be descriptive, but rather have more creative content. The paper should not be a summary or literature review. Originality is essential. The paper should be objective (use data, statistics, studies as basis) instead of subjective (based on opinion, what your friends think, etc). 3 How to write your research paper Once you have a gender difference for your topic approved with me, you can think of your paper as made of three parts: 1) introduction, 2) main analysis, and 3) conclusion. 3.1 Introduction In the introduction, you should briefly establish the gender difference – for instance, if your topic is Are men more likely to be top chess players, and if so, why?, in the introduction you should prove that men are more likely to be top chess players than women using statistics or studies where data are described involving, for instance, the percentage of women among the 100 world top chess players according to the International Chess Federation. These statistics or studies should be clearly referenced. 3 3.2 Main analysis 3.2.1 Hypotheses Next, in the main analysis, you should develop a number of potential hypotheses for your gender difference. To help you think about the hypotheses, you can use some or all of the following (depending on the topic, some will be more appropriate than others): ˆ Are the incentives that women and men face different? If so, how? ˆ Is this gender difference the same across countries? ˆ Has this gender difference changed over time? ˆ Think about nature versus nurture explanations. You can think of 3-4 potential main hypotheses. For instance, in the example of chess, your hypotheses could be: a) perhaps men are more likely to be top chess players because they like to play chess more than women. b) perhaps men are more likely to be top chess players because women don’t like to compete as much as men c) perhaps men are more likely to be top chess players because women don’t perform as well as men in competitive settings d) perhaps men are more likely to be top chess players because of biological differences between men and women In the main analysis, you should then try to disentangle between the hypotheses that you have identified as relevant, relying on statistics, data, studies, etc. For example, if hypothesis a) is true, then we would see that more men are members of chess associations than women. Then we would try to find information about chess association membership by gender, to see if that is the case. 3.2.2 Making connections Your topic cannot be in the course material itself, but you should use the concepts we use during the course in your paper. For instance, you cannot choose the wage gender gap as topic, but you are encouraged to use the concept of the wage gender gap in your analysis whenever relevant. 4 3.2.3 Back up any statements you make Every statement in your paper should be backed up by data or studies. For example, if you state in your paper that men earn higher wages than women on average, you should then indicate which studies or data lead to that statement (e.g., Blau and Winkler (2017)). If you need to speculate because of a lack of data and studies regarding a specific fact, make that clear in your paper. 3.2.4 Using data/regression analysis You can use data in regression analysis if you wish, but it is not expected. 3.3 Conclusion You should write your conclusion in the last paragraph of the paper. Your personal opinion should not be in the conclusion (or anywhere else in the paper). The conclusion should wrap up the main analysis. For instance, in further exploring the hypotheses in the topic of chess above, you may have found that hypotheses a) and b) are contradicted by empirical evidence (data, studies), but that hypotheses c) and d) cannot be ruled out. In that case, you should not arbitrarily choose between c) and d), but rather acknowledge that a combination of c) and d) can at least partly explain the gender difference analyzed in your topic. 4 References, extension and format 4.1 References There should be a References page at the end of the paper listing all of your references. For your paper, you can use as references papers from scholarly journals, books, as well as reputable internet sources (e.g., articles from online newspapers such as The New York Times, The Globe and Mail, and others). When referring to newspaper articles online, please include the link and retrieval date in the references. You may use scholarly papers and books in economics but also anthropology, sociology and psychology, depending on your topic. 5 There is no set number of necessary references. Every topic is different, so listing more references does not imply a higher mark. 4.2 Extension The research paper should be about four pages long. Maximum is five pages. Think quality rather than quantity. If you have figures in your paper, they do not count towards the total extension. The references page does not count towards paper extension. Other format details are your choice. 4.3 Format The paper should be written in 1.5 spaces. Please use font 12. 5 Research paper submission ˆ Submission must be made on eClass. ˆ We will use TURNITIN for the submission. ˆ DEADLINE is the last day of class for our course (December 8, 2020). ˆ There will be a penalty for late submission. The penalty increases in the number of days of late submission. 6 Evaluation The evaluation of the paper will be based on: ˆ Originality and creativity. ˆ Ability to apply logical analysis based on empirical evidence. ˆ Ability of making connections to course content.

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